evaluator

VMprotect VM_logic (in v1.8 demo)

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Code:
*******
VM-protect hides CPU instruction by dividing single instruction into many VM_opcodes.
But correct VM must fully reproduce CPU instructions and care about
correct result in EFlags, so any kind simulation is not acceptable!
lets look at VM_handlers

VM_handlers ( ~71 )
(SA = StackAdd , SS = StackSub)

AddByteByte_SS2
AddWordWord_SS2
AddDwordDword
Div168_SS2
Div3216_SS2
DIV6432
ExitVM

IDIV168_SS2
IDIV3216_SS2
IDIV6432

IMUL88_SS2
IMUL1616_SS4
IMUL3232_SS4

MUL88_SS2
MUL1616_SS4
MUL3232_SS4

NotNotAndByte_SS2
NotNotAndWord_SS2
NotNotAndDword

PopBP
PopEBP
PopfD_SA4  (mostly used on VM_STD, VM_CLD)
LoadVmIP_SA4

PopMemByte_SA6
PopMemByteSS_SA6
PopMemByteES_SA6
PopMemWord_SA6
PopMemWordSS_SA6
PopMemWordES_SA6
PopMemDword_SA8
PopMemDwordSS_SA8
PopMemDwordES_SA8
(also can be for CS,FS,GS case)

PopByteToVMRegsImmID_SA2
PopWordToVMRegsImmID_SA2
PopDwordToVMRegsOpcID_SA4
^^^^
PushByteFromVMRegsImmID_SS2
PushWordFromVMRegsImmID_SS2
PushDwordFromVMRegsOpcID_SS4
^^^^for byte/word/dword parts access in VM-Registers ( EAX,  AX, AL)

PushBP_SS2  (push VM_SP)
PushEBP_SS4  (push VM_ESP)

PushwImmUByte_SS2
PushdImmSByte_SS4
PushwImmWord_SS2
PushdImmSWord_SS4
PushImmDword_SS4

PushMemByte_SA2
PushMemByteSS_SA2
PushMemByteES_SA2
PushMemWord_SA2
PushMemWordSS_SA2
PushMemWordES_SA2
PushMemDword
PushMemDwordSS
PushMemDwordES
(also can be for CS,FS,GS case)

RclByte_SS2
RclWord_SS2
RclDword_SS2
RcrByte_SS2
RcrWord_SS2
RcrDword_SS2

SHLD_SA2
SHRD_SA2
ShlByte_SS2
ShlDword_SS2
ShlWord_SS2
ShrByte_SS2
ShrDword_SS2
ShrWord_SS2

tool-handlers
PushRDTSC_SS8
PushCPUID_SS12 (value)
CRCsum_SA4 (pmem, size)

**
all Logical & Arithmetic Handlers, which must care on EFlags, has code to store Eflags:

pushfd
pop    d, [ebp+0]

then after such handler VM will always call PopDwordToVMRegsOpcID_SA4
for store EFlags into VM-Registers (intermediate or main).
so we can state, they are VM-opcode-pairs


***
in VM_handlers we not see exact handlers for And/Or/Not/Xor/Sub/Rol... instructions;
How are they emulated!?

For Logical-instructions author builds main VM-handler "NotNotAnd";
it's assembly  code looks so:

Mov eax [ebp+0]
Mov edx [ebp+4]
Not  eax
Not  edx
And eax edx
Mov [ebp+4] eax
Pushfd
Pop  d,[ebp+0]

NotNotAnd (var1, var2) = And (Not var1) (Not var2)

and seems it is NOR LOGIC GATE!
(below i will leave name  "NotNotAnd"; I wrote this before did search,
 but you can search in internet for "NOR LOGIC" and see all in images!)

Other main logical instuctions will done via this NOR LOGIC GATE.
This sequence produces valid result in EFlags for emulated logical instructions,
so no further works need on EFlags.

VM_NOT (A) = NotNotAnd (A, A)

PushEBP_SS4 + PushMemDwordSS  =  push dword[esp]
usually uses in VM_NOT, to prevent dubble calculation

VM_AND (A, B) = NotNotAnd {VM_NOT (A), VM_NOT (B)}
              = NotNotAnd {NotNotAnd (A, A) , NotNotAnd (B, B)}

VM_TEST  = VM_AND ; result value stored in intermediate VM-regs, discarded

VM_OR (A, B) = VM_NOT [NotNotAnd (A, B)]
             = NotNotAnd {NotNotAnd (A, B) ,  <SamePushed }

VM_XOR (A, B) = NotNotAnd {NotNotAnd (A, B)} {VM_AND (A, B)}
              = NotNotAnd {NotNotAnd (A, B)} {NotNotAnd [NotNotAnd (A, A) , NotNotAnd (B, B)]}

VM_AND has also truncated variant, if one parameter is Immediate value.
VMprotect compiles Immediate value already inverted, so part VM_NOT(Immediate) skipped
in VM_AND construction. (see "AND ecx 7 " example; also in EFlags management)


Rol,Ror,Sar are emulated via SHLD & SHRD  handlers;


VM_RCL and VM_RCR will handled by RclDword_SS2 & RclDword_SS2 handlers,
for which Carry-Flag should extracted from VM_regs_Eflags;
then instuction in handler-code "SHR CH, 1" will load extracted CFlag & do RCL/RCR



VM_ADD is normal Addition
for other Arithmetic-instructions VM uses VM_ADD + logic constructions for EFlags management
(but for decompiling they are useless junk!)

VM_ADC (A, B) = VM_ADD(A, (B+Carry_flag))

VM_SUB (A, B) = VM_NOT [VM_ADD {B, (VM_NOT A)}] 
            EFlags = [And(0815, VM_ADD>>EFlags)] + [And( {Not(0815) }, final-VM_NOT>>EFlags)]
(virtualized into 36 VM-bytes)

VM_SBB (A, B) = VM_SUB(A, (B+Carry_flag))

VM_CMP = VM_SUB ; result value stored in intermediate VM-regs, discarded

VM_NEG (A) = VM_SUB (0, A)  ;   (constant 0 is already  inverted)

Inc & Dec instructions in CPU not affects Carry-flag, so Carry-flag should leaved in previous state.
VM_INC (A) = VM_ADD(1, A)
	Carry-flag restore in EFlags
VM_DEC (A) = VM_ADD(-1, A)
	Carry-flag restore in EFlags | Align-Flag managing

......
VMprotect virtualizes also CPU's complex-instructions,
if such can be represented by simple instructions.

VM_SETLE (virtualized into 80 VM-bytes!)
there will huge EFlags testing and produced result_byte will copied into destination.

VM_CMOVLE
same kind EFlags testing as SETLE, + VM_Conitional_Jump

for example VM_MOVSB
this complex-instruction is re-presented into simple instructions assembly group,
then this group virtualized.

VM_BSWAP is done in following way (27 VM-bytes)
HiWord(result) = HiWord {Shl (LoWord_LoWord) 8}
LoWord(result) = HiWord {Shl (HiWord_HiWord) 8}

VM_XADD
VM does same as CPU

VM_XCHG !?
while VMprotect author cares about LOCK prefix & not virtualizes instruction with it,
author did mistake and virtualized XCHG instruction.. oops!
to prevent XCHG virtualization, author recommends LOCK prefix

......
for FLD, FSTP instructions memory content will copied on stack, & load-store from there.

......
VM-Registers space is 16 dwords.
8 of them are for Eax,Ecx,Edx,Ebx,Ebp,Esi,Edi,EFlags ;
Esp is directly assigned to VM_stack(Ebp) ;
2 used for Relocation-Difference & passed_Mem_pointer ;
other  6  are used for temporal storage. mostly for intermediate EFlags,
also for intermediate or temporal results (VM_TEST, VM_CMP), also for cleanup VM-stack;
look at VM_SUB, where 2-intermediate Eflags will used in calculation.

 Place of real registers in this space is different not only for every other VM,
but also can change inside one VM!
Register read from one place, after CAN placed on intermediate place and
old place become intermediate. so VM-Registers tracking need!


......
VM-entry works so:

we are at current stack; lets call it TOP-ESP
at original Opcode place VMprotect puts call to VM:

push offset-VM_IP
call VM-StartCode
,,,,
VM-StartCode:

push Registers, EFlags ; << Order of push CAN be other then order of pop on ExitVM!
push [passed_pointer_for_security  + "crypt-constant" ] 
; <<new from 1.8, passed from StartupVM, which  allocates this memory,
; resolves imports, does file CRC-check,
push 0 ; Relocation-Difference
mov  esi, [esp+030] ; offset-VM_IP
mov  ebp, esp ; ebp will VM-stack
sub  esp, 0C0 ; 040 bytes reserved for 16 VM-Registers, other free 080 byte space will used
              ; for user-pushed-variables. if too low become VM-stack, then VM-Registers will
              ; moved down
mov  edi, esp ; edi holds VM-Registers pointer

add  esi, [ebp+0] ; add Relocation-Difference to offset-VM_IP
			; also here jumps LoadVmIP handler

and now code is on VM_main_loop:
{VM_main_loop has 2 variations, down-read VM-bytes as below, or inverse - up-read}

mov    al,[esi]
movzx  eax,al
inc    esi
jmp    [JumpTable + eax*4]

here starts  VM_BLOCK execution,
which will move all pushed by VM-StartCode Registers/EFlags/others to VM-Registers space,
until VM-Stack(ebp) will reach TOP-ESP.

now starts virtualized user-code execution;

 ......
VM-exit works so:

VM-stack(Ebp) is at TOP-ESP; (can be above start value, if Ret_nn emulated or Esp changed)
now VM executes VM_BLOCK-Epilog-bytes, which will pop all required values (+ return_IP).
from VM-Registers_space to stack and Ebp is ready for ExitVM-handler;
then last VM-byte will call ExitVM-handler,
which pops all from stack to Registers/EFlags and does Ret to return_IP.


......
 because of it's original way of Jump management,
VMprotect divides executable code into VM_Blocks:
from Start or Jump_label to End or Jump;

VM_BLOCK starts with  VM_BLOCK-Prolog_bytes .
 Prolog-bytes does:
1. "decrypt" passed_pointer_for_security ;
2. pop all from stack to VM_Registers;

VM_BLOCK ends with  VM_BLOCK-Epilog_bytes .
 Epilog-bytes does:
1. push from VM_Registers to stack;
2. IF  VM-exit: go to ExitVM-handler;
   ELSE: "crypt"  passed_pointer_for_security ; (for next VM_BLOCK entry)


VM_JUMP (conditional) works so:
in stack VM places 2 VM_BLOCK_IP offsets, then  does Push_VM_ESP,
so in VM_Stack is pointer to lower one.
then VMprotect converts EFlags state to adjustment value 4 or 0,
so pointer in VM_Stack either will adjusted to second VM_BLOCK_IP,
either will leaved as is.

example for  VM_JNZ/VM_JZ

PushdImmD_SS4    offset_JumpIf_Zf=1
PushdImmD_SS4    offset_JumpIf_Zf=0
PushEBP_SS4      (Push Esp)

PushwImmUB_SS2  04 (Zf Bit position)
VM_AND (040, EFlags)

Shr_D_SS2       040        04 (Zf Bit position)  ; Zf=1, so result=4
Add_DD          04         012FFB8  ; pointer adjusted
Pushm_D_SS      [012FFBC]
PopVR_D_SA4     024        offset_JumpIf_Zf=1 ; pop into VM_Regs

 after follows  VM_BLOCK-Epilog_bytes + LoadVmIP.

It is our job to discover: is it JZ or JNZ !


 single flag condition is light case!
while complex condition requires wierd calculations for convert
conditions into single adjustment value.
longest calculation takes GREATER / LOWER_or_EQUAL conditions.
same kind work done on EFlags for CMOVcc & SETcc instructions

 if we will see  VM_BLOCK-Epilog_bytes direcly before VM_BLOCK-Prolog_bytes ,
then mostly it is label for jump;

......
VM_CALL done in way, we are often doing in assembly:
Push Arguments, Return address, Call address & then Retn = ExitVM.

......
if VM can't virtualize instruction, it has 2 way:

1. if instruction not affects Memory/Registers/EFlags (like EMMS, FPU-commands),
it can included in any free VM-handler and appropriate VM-byte will assigned;

2. else VM does full VM-exit to this instruction & after it's execution again calls VM.

......
memory effective address will calculated step by step
example: mov eax D$edi+ecx*8+088888888
all Regs/Values will pashed & added. on (ecx*8) will used ShlDword_SS2 handler.

......
in these manners will virtualized many instructions, in hope to hide them.

OK, but now Generic Question is: does Complex-Opcode virtualization matters!?!?
for example, lets say, we decompiled VM_MOVSB into simple instruction group
& we not guess their meaning as initial opcode. But, is that problem!? No!
code has all it's functionality anyway!
+ VM_opcode listings in attachment
Attached Thumbnails Attached Files

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